音樂的效用因應音樂的複雜程度，自閉症人士的能力水平及對音樂的偏好而有所不同。例如，對較嚴重的自閉症患者而言，簡單、清晰及能預計的音樂最能有效地誘發他們與人交往時的相互注意行為，而較複雜、多變的音樂則對輕度至中度的自閉症患者最為有效(Kalas, 2012)。此外，採用自閉症患者所偏好的音樂最能有效地減少其核板式發聲的頻率(Lanovaz, et al., 2012)。更有趣的是，當早期訓練配合以家庭為中心的音樂治療時，受惠的不只是自閉症患者，而且還改善了他們與父母的關係(Thompson et al., 2014)。
除社交層面的益處外，初步研究結果亦支持音樂有助自閉症人士提升專注力(Pasiali et al., 2014)，減少自殘性、刻板式及暴力行為(Boso et al., 2007; Lundqvist et al., 2008)，以及協助他們學習如自理(Kern et al., 2007a)、早上打招呼(Kern et al., 2007b)等日常生活習慣。
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